What is Hydrothermal Carbonisation (HTC)?

Hydrothermal carbonisation is a highly efficient process which replicates the natural process of coal generation. The process uses a combination of heat and pressure to chemically transform organic waste into a carbon dense material with similar or better properties as fossil coal.

Hydrothermal carbonisation was first described in 1913 by Nobel Laureate Friedrich Bergius, and having been forgotten was reintroduced to the public in 2006 by Prof. M. Antonietti, Max-Planck-Institute, Germany. It is a simple process that takes wet and dry organic waste mixed with water, heats it to 200°C at 25 bar of pressure to drive the chemical conversion into biocoal. After dewatering it can be used as powder or formed into briquettes or pellets.

It has the lowest greenhouse gas emissions (incl. CO2-emissions) of any organic waste to biofuel conversion process and the only by-product is clean water (no toxins).

The process itself is energy efficient in that it uses only approximately 12 – 15% of the energy produced to power itself.

Antaco’s technology uses a low-tech and low-cost process running at low temperatures and low pressure with no moving parts in a pressurized environment.

Carbon Efficiency

How much carbon ends up as fuel?



Anaerobic Digestion



Biofuel, Alcohol

Our Simple Revolutionary Process

Turns all wet and dry biomass efficiently into fuel

We take any type of biowaste and mix it with water to create a ‘soup’. We then cook the soup at oven temperature pressurised up to 25 bar. During cooking the soup turns into a black sludge which is then dewatered and the remaining black powder (biocoal) is pelletised.

Sewage sludge
Household waste
Garden waste
Coffee grounds
Brewers grains
Rice husks
Cocoa pod husks
Palm kernel shells
Mushroom compost

Our Technology

Antaco’s engineering innovation allows the commercialisation of the hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) process that has the ability of significantly addressing the major issues of waste and energy. Our technology delivers the most efficient organic waste conversion available on the market thus providing a valuable addition to the circular economy as well as a solution to our modern day carbon problem.

The conversion is simple. Organic waste is fed into our patented reactor, heated to oven temperature and pressurised. Under these conditions the natural process of hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) takes place.

The Result

A biofuel classed as carbon neutral which can be used as fossil coal replacement, activated carbon and as soil improver.

“… the HTC process is far superior compared to previous biomass conversion processes relating to the avoidance of CO2 emissions.”

Dr. Peter Brandt – Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety, Berlin

Advantages of our HTC process


Reduces waste


Enables 24/7 operation

Energy saving

Recycles heat from process

Double feeding technology

Increases production capacity

Antaco’s technological solution converts any type of biomass with any level of moisture content into a solid biofuel within 4 to 10 hours in a continuous and efficient manner. The biofuel produced, biocoal, has very similar properties to fossil coal and has the highest heat value of any solid biomass fuel on the market. It can be used as a direct replacement for fossil coal in existing power stations.

Watch Our Game Changing Technology